1960 COUP D’ÉTAT: THE FIRST COUP IN TURKISH REPUBLIC

  • AKHAND SHARIF SURID Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
Keywords: Kemalist Principles, 1960 Turkish Coup d’état, Democracy Dilemma, Traditional Militarism, NATO

Abstract

On May 27th the Republic of Turkey faced her first full-fledged Military takeover (Coup). As it is said, “A Coup is never just a Coup”. This review article provides a summary of the atmosphere before and after the coup of 1960 and a critical analysis of the democratic promises it brought. This Paper analyzes different terms used to identify the event such as revolution, insurrection, intervention, and coup. It also discusses the tradition of regular military intervention in the history of the Republic of Turkey. Since the transition to democracy and the multiparty system was not natural this paper also indicates the absence of democratic culture in Turkish history.  After 27th May, Turkey was led to the new constitutional structure of 1961. As it is said, the 1924 Constitution that established the first Republic of Turkey was wiped out with a coup and the 1961 Constitution and the Second Republic was established (Dursun, 2005:187). Since then until recent times the military could not separate itself from the political life of Turkey. The following discussions enclose; the origin of the 1960 Coup, the Aftermath, the Conspiracies, the Civilian Military relationship, Traditional and Historical views, Kemalist Principles, Government citizen dialogs, and Socio-economic backwardness. This critical analysis went through different interesting and easily misunderstood concepts (such as Revolt, Revolution, Military takeover, etc.).

Author Biography

AKHAND SHARIF SURID, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey

Researcher, Department of International Relations, nseries.surid@gmail.com

References

1. Andrew, H. (2013). Politics, p266, 4th Edition, New York: PALGRAVE MACMILAN
2. 2019/July 7th, Coup d'état POLITICAL INTERVENTION, Retrieved from (https://www.britannica.com/topic/coup-detat)
3. F. Weiker, The Turkish Revolution, 1960–1961: Aspects of Military Politics (Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 1963), p.119
4. F. Weiker, The Turkish Revolution, 1960–1961: Aspects of Military Politics (Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 1963),
5. E. EKINCI, (2016, August). “The 1960 coup: First attack on Turkish democracy”. Retrieved From: (https://www.dailysabah.com/feature/2016/08/08/the-1960-coup-first-attack-on-turkish-democracy)
6. 2019/July 7th, Coup d'état POLITICAL INTERVENTION, Retrieved from (https://www.britannica.com/topic/coup-detat)
7. Feruz, A. (2003). Turkey: The Quest for Identity, p153, United Kingdom: Oneworld Publications
8. B. BURAK, (2011), The Role of the Military in Turkish Politics: To Guard Whom and From What?, European Journal of Economic and Political Studies, EJEPS 4(1), p. 4
9. Feruz, A. (1993). The Making of Modern Turkey, 1st Edition, p110, New York: Routledge Publications
10. E. EKINCI, (2016, August). “The 1960 coup: First attack on Turkish democracy”. Retrieved From: (https://www.dailysabah.com/feature/2016/08/08/the-1960-coup-first-attack-on-turkish-democracy)
11. Nation Party, Retrieved from: (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nation_Party_(Turkey,_1948))
12. B. BURAK, (2011), The Role of the Military in Turkish Politics: To Guard Whom and From What?, European Journal of Economic and Political Studies, EJEPS 4(1)
13. Begum, B. (2012). The 1960 Coup in Turkey: An Attempt to Analyze Politics from a Gramscian Perspective. Retrived from: (https://thegwpost.com/2012/09/04/the-1960-coup-in-turkey-an-attempt-to-anaylize-politics-from-a-gramscianperspective/)
14. Omer, E. (2014). Turkey ın the triangle of the 1950–1960 era, the 1960 military coup, and the 1961 constitution.
15. Harris, G. (1970). The Causes of the 1960 Revolution in Turkey. Middle East Journal, 24(4), 438-454. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4324643
16. Muallimoglu, N. (1960). MEANING OF THE COUP D' ETAT IN TURKEY. Pakistan Horizon, 13(3), 190-202. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41392371
17. McLaren, L., & Cop, B. (2011). The Failure of Democracy in Turkey: A Comparative Analysis. Government and Opposition, 46(4), 485-516. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/44482209
18. Demirel, T. 2004. “Soldiers and Civilians: The Dilemma of Turkish Democracy” Middle Eastern Studies 40, pp. 127-150.
19. Demirel, T. 2005. “Lessons of Military Regimes and Democracy: The Turkish Case in a Comparative Perspective” Armed Forces and Society 31, pp. 245-271.
20. Tachau, F., & Heper, M. (1983). The State, Politics, and the Military in Turkey. Comparative Politics, 16(1), 17-33. doi:10.2307/421593
21. Rustow, D. 1959. “The Army and the Founding of the Turkish Republic” World Politics 11, pp.513-552.
22. Karaosmanoğlu, A. 2000 “ The Evolution of the National Security Culture and the Military in Turkey” Journal of International Affairs 54, pp. 199-216.
23. Tachau, Frank. and Heper, Metin. 1983. “The State, Politics, and the Military in Turkey” Comparative Politics 16, pp. 17-33.
24. Dursun, D. (2005), “Türk Demokrasisinde Kurumsallaşma Sorunu ve Krizleri Çözme Yöntemi Olarak Askeri Darbeler”.
Published
2019-07-19
How to Cite
SURID, A. S. (2019). 1960 COUP D’ÉTAT: THE FIRST COUP IN TURKISH REPUBLIC. CenRaPS Journal of Social Sciences, 1(1), 14-23. Retrieved from http://cenraps.org/journal/index.php/c/article/view/2
Section
Articles